Identity of shipper. While the Hague-Visby Rules and Hague Rules define the “carrier” and the “ship”, they do not define the “shipper” although Art. 1(a) refers to a “shipper” in its definition of a carrier.

Ice clause. In a charter it is the responsibility of the charterer to send the ship to a safe port. A port which is "ice-bound" or in which ice conditions can cause damage to the ship, may not be a "safe port".

IGS (Inert gas system). After the Convention on Safety of Life at Sea 1974 and that on Prevention of Marine Pollution from Ships 1973 entered into force oil tankers had to be fitted with such a system.

International tonnage. Clearly, there are a number of differences between all the existing systems. This Means that a ship’s tonnage can vary depending on the applicable rules. The variations are reflected in financial consequences for ship-owners.

 In geographical rotation. If charterers have the option of loading or discharging a ship in several ports within a particular ranges for example, "ARH range" (Antwerp-Rotterdam-Hamburg range), it is important to stipulate that if this option is exercised, the ship will be ordered to proceed to the ports in geographical rotation.

Issue of bills of lading. Under the Hague Rules/Hague-Visby Rules, when the goods are received into the charge of the carrier, he or the master or agent of the carrier must, on demand of the shipper, issue a bill of lading properly describing the goods, that is, showing the identification marks, quantity of cargo and apparent order and condition of the goods (Art. III, r. 3).

Implied obligation of seaworthiness. In. Kopitoff v. Wilson, 1876, it was said that under any contract of carriage of goods by sea the vessel must be: “ . . .fit to meet and undergo the perils of the sea and other incidental risks to which . . .she must be exposed in the course of a voyage".

Implied terms. In contracts, including charterparties, the extent and scope of the agreement is contained in "terms" which cover the obligations and responsibilities of the parties.

INCOTERMS. This is the current edition of thirteen sets of trade terms which were originally meant for use in international commerce. When goods are bought or sold internationally, arrangements must be made for, their transport.

In regular turn. (Also In usual turn). "Turn" refers to the sequence in which the port authorities may allow a ship to enter or berth for loading or discharging. In the case of The Themistocles, 1949, the judge described the meaning of the phrase:

I.L.O. Convention 32 clause. The International Labour Organisation, an agency of the United Nations, is concerned with the safety of working conditions in a variety of fields, the maritime industry being one. 

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