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Free Draught Survey Calculation Program, Stowage plan, Notice of Readiness, Container Carriage, Letter of Protest (from our readers), Ship's papers, Ship inspection report and much more...

Tug & tow; less than 50 metres; pushing ahead.

Constrained by draught; 50 metres or more; port side.

Tug & tow; 50 metres or more; astern > 200 m in length; port side.

When berthing without tugs, it is essential that the effects of lateral motion are fully understood.

When a ship moving forward turns by use of engines and rudder alone, the effect of centrifugal force is to push the ship laterally away from the direction of the turn.

It is evident from the other chapters of this Guide dealing with the technical aspects of ship berthing that the effective use of pilotage and towage services is crucial in avoiding accidents. It is therefore important to reflect briefly on the legal responsibilities of pilots, those engaged in towage services, and the ships that they assist.

Anchors are an effective berthing aid. Anchors can be used for berthing without tug assistance on ships without bow thrusters and, in an emergency, to stop any ship.

The most common type of pollution is by oil. However, P&I cover is not limited merely to oil pollution; any pollution which originates from or is caused by the ship is covered (e.g. smoke or garbage).

Whenever there is a death, injury or even an allegation of injury on board, or in the vicinity of the ship, always inform the local Club correspondent, regardless of whether the injured person is a crew member.

  P&I Clubs do not directly insure the cargo for loss or damage but they do insure shipowners or managers for their liability to cargo owners for loss or damage arising while the cargo is in the custody of the ship. Many cargo claims are prevented by good maintenance, careful handling, stowage and transportation.

Tonnage is used for many purposes in shipping - for assessment of port and harbor dues, pilotage charges, canal tolls, insurance premiums, manning levels, maritime statistics, limitations of liability, and as a criteria for application of regulations made under International Conventions, in particular, SOLAS 74/78.

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INTRODUCTION TO DRAUGHT SURVEY AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES

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