Tug & tow; less than 50 metres; astern < 200 m in length; starboard side.
Tug & tow; 50 metres or more; astern > 200 m in length; port side.
It is evident from the other chapters of this Guide dealing with the technical aspects of ship berthing that the effective use of pilotage and towage services is crucial in avoiding accidents. It is therefore important to reflect briefly on the legal responsibilities of pilots, those engaged in towage services, and the ships that they assist.
Wind and its effect
Wind has a significant effect on a ship. It causes heading changes and leeway. Failure to compensate correctly for wind during berthing is a significant cause of berthing accidents. The difficulty in allowing for wind arises from the variable effect that wind can have on a ship because of changes in a ship’s heading and speed.
The costs of repatriation of stowaways (as well as sick crew members) are covered by the Club. Repatriation of stowaways can be difficult, time consuming and expensive – always complete a thorough stowaway search before departure and always maintain a gangway watch.
The most common type of pollution is by oil. However, P&I cover is not limited merely to oil pollution; any pollution which originates from or is caused by the ship is covered (e.g. smoke or garbage).
P&I Clubs do not directly insure the cargo for loss or damage but they do insure shipowners or managers for their liability to cargo owners for loss or damage arising while the cargo is in the custody of the ship. Many cargo claims are prevented by good maintenance, careful handling, stowage and transportation.
Tonnage is used for many purposes in shipping - for assessment of port and harbor dues, pilotage charges, canal tolls, insurance premiums, manning levels, maritime statistics, limitations of liability, and as a criteria for application of regulations made under International Conventions, in particular, SOLAS 74/78.
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