Tugs are usually employed according to the practice of the port after taking into account the capabilities of the available tug types.
It is evident from the other chapters of this Guide dealing with the technical aspects of ship berthing that the effective use of pilotage and towage services is crucial in avoiding accidents. It is therefore important to reflect briefly on the legal responsibilities of pilots, those engaged in towage services, and the ships that they assist.
When berthing without tugs, it is essential that the effects of lateral motion are fully understood.
When a ship moving forward turns by use of engines and rudder alone, the effect of centrifugal force is to push the ship laterally away from the direction of the turn.
The bill of lading is a record of the quantity of cargo and of its apparent order and condition at the time of shipment and, as such, is a vitally important document. Cargo damage or shortage claims can result from errors in the quantity and condition of cargo recorded on the bills of lading.
Whenever there is a death, injury or even an allegation of injury on board, or in the vicinity of the ship, always inform the local Club correspondent, regardless of whether the injured person is a crew member.
In the event of an incident or allegation which gives, or may give, rise to a P&I problem there are certain actions which you should always take and certain actions which you should never take. These actions are listed on this page. The checklists which follow are designed to help you to remember what to do and who to call.
Tonnage is used for many purposes in shipping - for assessment of port and harbor dues, pilotage charges, canal tolls, insurance premiums, manning levels, maritime statistics, limitations of liability, and as a criteria for application of regulations made under International Conventions, in particular, SOLAS 74/78.