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Both sailing vessels have the wind on the same side; the vessel which is to windward shall keep out of the way of the vessel which is to leeward.

Tug hampered by tow; astern.

Trawler; stopped and making no way through the water.

It is evident from the other chapters of this Guide dealing with the technical aspects of ship berthing that the effective use of pilotage and towage services is crucial in avoiding accidents. It is therefore important to reflect briefly on the legal responsibilities of pilots, those engaged in towage services, and the ships that they assist.

Wind and its effect

Wind has a significant effect on a ship. It causes heading changes and leeway. Failure to compensate correctly for wind during berthing is a significant cause of berthing accidents. The difficulty in allowing for wind arises from the variable effect that wind can have on a ship because of changes in a ship’s heading and speed.

Tugs are usually employed according to the practice of the port after taking into account the capabilities of the available tug types.

The P&I Club does not cover damage caused to the ship itself – that is the responsibility of the hull underwriters. If a collision only results in damage to your ship, your P&I Club will probably not be involved financially but it may assist the owner.

The most common type of pollution is by oil. However, P&I cover is not limited merely to oil pollution; any pollution which originates from or is caused by the ship is covered (e.g. smoke or garbage).

Whenever there is a death, injury or even an allegation of injury on board, or in the vicinity of the ship, always inform the local Club correspondent, regardless of whether the injured person is a crew member.

Tonnage is used for many purposes in shipping - for assessment of port and harbor dues, pilotage charges, canal tolls, insurance premiums, manning levels, maritime statistics, limitations of liability, and as a criteria for application of regulations made under International Conventions, in particular, SOLAS 74/78.

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INTRODUCTION TO DRAUGHT SURVEY AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES

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