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Vessel engaged in dredging or underwater operations; 50 metres or more; restricted in her ability to manoeuvre; ahead; may pass on port side.

Power-driven vessel; less than 50 metres; ahead.

Restricted in her ability to manoeuvre.

It is evident from the other chapters of this Guide dealing with the technical aspects of ship berthing that the effective use of pilotage and towage services is crucial in avoiding accidents. It is therefore important to reflect briefly on the legal responsibilities of pilots, those engaged in towage services, and the ships that they assist.

Wind and its effect

Wind has a significant effect on a ship. It causes heading changes and leeway. Failure to compensate correctly for wind during berthing is a significant cause of berthing accidents. The difficulty in allowing for wind arises from the variable effect that wind can have on a ship because of changes in a ship’s heading and speed.

Water depth

Water depth has a profound effect on maneuvering. In a harbor, water depth may vary from deep to conditions in which there is danger of touching bottom.

  P&I Clubs do not directly insure the cargo for loss or damage but they do insure shipowners or managers for their liability to cargo owners for loss or damage arising while the cargo is in the custody of the ship. Many cargo claims are prevented by good maintenance, careful handling, stowage and transportation.

The P&I Club does not cover damage caused to the ship itself – that is the responsibility of the hull underwriters. If a collision only results in damage to your ship, your P&I Club will probably not be involved financially but it may assist the owner.

  In the event of an incident or allegation which gives, or may give, rise to a P&I problem there are certain actions which you should always take and certain actions which you should never take. These actions are listed on this page. The checklists which follow are designed to help you to remember what to do and who to call.

Tonnage is used for many purposes in shipping - for assessment of port and harbor dues, pilotage charges, canal tolls, insurance premiums, manning levels, maritime statistics, limitations of liability, and as a criteria for application of regulations made under International Conventions, in particular, SOLAS 74/78.

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