A non-vessel-operating carrier, which is a company operating a goods shipping service using space it has hired on another company's ship. Some NVOCs hire containership slots from shipowners (for which purpose the SLOTHIRE charter party was developed), while others charter entire ships. An NVOC thus has one contract, as carrier, with the exporter/merchant, and another, as shipper, with the owners or operator of the carrying ship (sometimes called the performing carrier). Numerous NVOCs operate in the liner trades.
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