The carrier has a possessory lien on goods in his possession for unpaid freight, general average charges and money spent in protecting the cargo (sometimes called particular charges or special charges). "Possession" includes actual possession, e. g. when the goods are still on board the ship, as well as constructive possession, e. g. when the goods have been discharged but have not yet been delivered to the receiver. In this case the ship's agent may be instructed to exercise the lien on the carrier's behalf after the ship has sailed.
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