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Isolated Danger marks. Isolated Danger marks are erected on, or moored on or above, isolated dangers of limited extent which have navigable water all round them. The extent of the surrounding navigable water is immaterial: such a mark can, for example, indicate either a shoal which is well offshore, or an islet separated by a narrow channel from the coast.


This diagram is schematic and in the case of pillar buoys in particular, their features will vary with the individual design of the buoys in use.

Signalling by Morse Code

Morse symbols


Remember that the evidence relating to the incident is likely to be found on board the ship and that this evidence will be needed by the Club to defend claims which are received from injured persons, the owners of damaged cargo or property, or from a terminal operator.

Anchors are an effective berthing aid. Anchors can be used for berthing without tug assistance on ships without bow thrusters and, in an emergency, to stop any ship.

The case studies that follow briefly report incidents, their causes and how they could have been avoided.

The average adjuster appointed by the party who declared general average (which is most often the ship owner).

 Masters should have a watch kept on the gangway. They should prohibit stevedores from certain areas and have a watch kept on them. Searches should be made of the ship before sailing.

Timesheets and Laytime calculation. After a fixture has been made and the vessel has commenced performance of the charter, "post-fixture activities" become important.


Load lines. The deck line and load lines, laid down in Load Line Rules, are marked on the ship’s side as follows.

Capacity plans. The capacity plan shows a longitudinal and transverse profile of the vessel, and diagrams of loadlines as well as the principal particulars, such as: