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Isolated Danger marks. Isolated Danger marks are erected on, or moored on or above, isolated dangers of limited extent which have navigable water all round them. The extent of the surrounding navigable water is immaterial: such a mark can, for example, indicate either a shoal which is well offshore, or an islet separated by a narrow channel from the coast.

Signalling by Morse Code

Morse symbols



This diagram is schematic and in the case of pillar buoys in particular, their features will vary with the individual design of the buoys in use.

Remember that the evidence relating to the incident is likely to be found on board the ship and that this evidence will be needed by the Club to defend claims which are received from injured persons, the owners of damaged cargo or property, or from a terminal operator.

Anchors are an effective berthing aid. Anchors can be used for berthing without tug assistance on ships without bow thrusters and, in an emergency, to stop any ship.

The case studies that follow briefly report incidents, their causes and how they could have been avoided.

Where the authorized officer so directs, or where the master is required to make a report under Regulation 13 (see Preparations for health clearance in Section H), no person other than the pilot, a customs officer, or an immigration officer, may, without the permission of the authorized officer, board or leave a ship until free pratique has been granted, and the master must take all reasonable steps to secure compliance with this requirement.


The average adjuster appointed by the party who declared general average (which is most often the ship owner).

Timesheets and Laytime calculation. After a fixture has been made and the vessel has commenced performance of the charter, "post-fixture activities" become important.


Load lines. The deck line and load lines, laid down in Load Line Rules, are marked on the ship’s side as follows.

Cancelling date (Laycan). This is an abbreviation for the "Laydays and Cancelling" clause in a charterparty. This clause establishes the earliest date, when the ship is required by the charterer, (e.g. "Laytime for loading shall not commence before . . .") and the latest date for the commencement of the charter (e.g. “ . . . and should the vessel's Notice of Readiness not be given before . . . ") when the charterers have the option of cancelling the charter.